Myeloma has a wide variability in the disease trajectory and prognosis. Accurate diagnosis and risk stratification are essential in choosing the best available therapy at each point in time. The most up-to-date IMWG recommendations will assist the advanced practitioner in effective diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of the MM patient.

Types of Tests

  • Laboratory analysis of blood and urine
    • CBC and metabolic panel
      • Calcium, uric acid, creatinine, eGFR
      • ALB, β2m, LDH 
      • CRP
      • Laboratory analysis of blood and urine
  • M-Proteins
    • Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPEP), Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP), immunofixation (IFE)
    • Quantitative immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM, etc.), serum Free Light Chain (sFLC) assay
  • Radiologic imaging studies to assess the skeleton
    • Skeletal survey or whole body low-dose CT scan
    • Bone density 
    • MRI/CT or PET (more specific)
  • Bone marrow aspiration
    •  Genetic studies – cytogenetics, FISH, Gene expression profiling (GEP), Plasma Cell Labeling Index (PCLI)

Related Content

image of CJON cover

Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
CJON | Supplement to Vol. 15 Num. 4 | August 2011
Maintaining Bone Health in Patients with Multiple Myeloma


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Comprised of oncology-certified nurses, the Nurse Leadership Board has extensive knowledge of the multiple myeloma treatment and care landscape. These resources were developed by their team.

Last Medical Review: August 1, 2019

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