The Black Swan Research Initiative® (BSRI) is the International Myeloma Foundation's signature research program aimed at developing a definitive cure for myeloma. Led by a team of global myeloma experts, the BSRI provides coordination and support for more than 40 research projects around the world. Launched in 2012, BSRI research is already resulting in tangible benefits for myeloma patients. Learn about the latest BSRI manuscripts, abstracts, and presentations.


  1. Jelinek, T et al. Current applications of multiparameter flow cytometry in plasma cell disorders. Blood Cancer J. 2017 Oct 20;7(10):e617. doi: 10.1038/bcj.2017.90.
  2. Mithraprabhu, S, Spencer, A et al. Circulating tumour DNA analysis demonstrates spatial mutational heterogeneity that coincides with disease relapse in myeloma. Leukemia. 2017 Aug;31(8):1695-1705. doi: 10.1038/leu.2016.366. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
  3. Hillengass, J et al. Whole-body computed tomography versus conventional skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma: a study of the International Myeloma Working Group. Blood Cancer J. 2017 Aug 25;7(8):e599. doi:10.1038/bcj.2017.78.
  4. Lahuerta JJ, Paiva B, et al. Depth of response in multiple myeloma: a pooled analysis of 609 patients enrolled in three PETHEMA/GEM clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Sep 1;35(25):2900-2910. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2016.69.2517. Epub 2017 May 12.
  5. Roshal M, Flores-Montero, JA, et al. MRD detection in multiple myeloma: comparison between MSKCC 10-color single-tube and EuroFlow 8-color 2-tube methods. Blood Advances 2017 1:728-732; doi:
  6. Mishima Y, Paiva B, Ghobrial I, et al. The Mutational Landscape of Circulating TumorCells in Multiple Myeloma. Cell Rep. 2017 Apr 4;19(1):218-224.
  7. Halvarsson B-M, Wihlborg A-K, et al. Direct evidence for a polygenic etiology in familial multiple myeloma. Blood Advances. 2017 1:619-623
  8. Flores-Montero J, Paiva B, Orfao, A, et al. Next generation flow (NGF) for highly sensitive and standardized detection of minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 2017 Oct;31(10):2094-2103. doi: 10.1038/leu.2017.29. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
  9. Paiva B, et al. Minimal residual disease monitoring and immune profiling in multiplemyeloma in elderly patients. Blood. 2016;127(25):3165-3174.
  10. Paiva B, et al. Phenotypic, transcriptomic, and genomic features of clonal plasma cells in light-chain amyloidosis. Blood. 2016;127(24):3035-3039.
  11. Paiva B, et al. Phenotypic and genomic analysis of multiple myeloma minimal residualdisease tumor cells: a new model to understand chemoresistance. Blood. 2016;127(15):1896-1906.
  12. Flores-Montero J, de Tute R, Paiva B, Perez JJ, Bottcher S, Wind H, Sanoja L, Puig N,Lecrevisse Q, Vidriales MB, van Dongen JJM and Orfao A. Immunophenotype of Normal vs. Myeloma Plasma Cells: Toward Antibody Panel Specifications for MRD Detection in Multiple Myeloma. Cytometry Part B 2016; 90B: 61–72.
  13. Pojero F, Flores-Montero J, Sanoja L, Perez JJ, Puig N, Paiva B, Bottcher S, van Dongen JM, and Orfao A on behalf of the Euroflow group. Utility of CD54, CD229, CD319 for the Identification of Plasma Cells in Patients with Clonal Plasma Cell Diseases. Cytometry Part B (Clinical Cytometry) 201690B:91–100.
  14. Paiva B, van Dongen JM, and Orfao A. New criteria for response assessment: role of minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma. Blood 2015; 125: 3059-3068
  15. Paiva B, Chandia M, Puig N, Vidriales MD, Perez JJ, Lopez-Corral L, Ocio EM, Garcia-Sanz R, Gutierrez NC, Jimenez-Ubieto A, Lahuerta JJ, Mateos MV, and San Miguel JF. The prognostic value of multiparameter flow cytometry minimal residual disease assessment in relapsed multiple myeloma. Haematologica Feb 2015, 100 (2) e53-e55.
  16. Matarraz S, Paiva B, Díez-Campelo M, Bárrena S, Jara-Acevedo M, Gutiérrez ML, Sayagués JM, Sánchez ML, Bárcena P, Garrastazul MP, Berruezo MJ, Duran JM, Cerveró C, García-Erce JA, Florensa L, Méndez GD, Gutierrez O, Del Cañizo MC, van Dongen JJ, San Miguel JF, Orfao A. Immunophenotypic alterations of bone marrow myeloid cell compartments in multiple myeloma patientspredict for myelodysplasia-associated cytogenetic alterations. Leukemia. 2014 Aug;28(8):1747-50.
  17. Matarraz S, et al. Myelodysplasia-associated immunophenotypic alterations of bone marrow cells in myeloma: are they present at diagnosis or are they induced by lenalidomide? Haematologica October 2012 97: 1608-1611



  1. Sanoja-Flores Luzalba, Flores-Montero Juan, and Orfao Alberto1 on behalf of the EuroFlow Consortium and the International Myeloma Foundation. Frequency and number of clonal plasma cells in peripheral blood (PB) in plasma cell neoplasm (PCN) by Next Generation Flow. XV Congress of Iberican Society of Cytometry. May 2017. (poster presentation) *link to follow*
  2. Hillengass, J et al. Findings of Whole Body Computed Tomography Compared to Conventional Skeletal Survey in Patients with Monoclonal Plasma Cell Disorders – a Study of the International Myeloma Working Group. Blood 2016 128:4468.
  3. Spencer A, Mithraprabhu S, Ramachandran M, Klarica D, Hocking J, Mai L, Walsh S, Broemeling D, Marziali A, Kalff A, Wiggin M, Durie BGM, and Khong TT. Evaluation of Circulating Tumour DNA for the Mutational Characterisation of Multiple Myeloma. Blood 2015 126:368.
  4. Misiewicz-Krzeminska I, et al. Quantification of Cyclin D1, Cyclin D2, Ikaros, Aiolos, and Cerebelon Proteins by Capilary Immunoassay in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma and Analysis of their Impact on Patient Survival. EHA21 Abstract Book (2016).
  5. Kubiczkova-Besse L,Drandi D,Sedlarikova L,Oliva S, Gambella M,Omed P, Adam Z,Pour L, Sevcikova S,Boccadoro M,Palumbo A,Hajek R. Cell-Free DNA for Minimal Residual Disease Monitoring in Multiple Myeloma Patients. Blood2014124:3423


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