International myeloma working group consensus statement and guidelines regarding the current role of imaging techniques in the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple Myeloma

This statement reviews imaging methods that can detect bone and soft tissue damage caused by multiple myeloma (MM), including the following:

  • Conventional radiography: “gold standard” in imaging studies of myeloma patients
  • Computed tomography (CT): When an MRI is not possible, a CT is suggested to determine cord compression.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): provides imaging complementary to skeletal survey results
  • Nuclear medicine imaging
  • Neither bone scintigraphy, nor dual x-ray absorptiometry, is recommended as an imaging study for myeloma patients
  • Positron emission tomography/CT, MIBI: neither are recommended directly for myeloma imaging, but can be helpful in clarifying other imaging results that are questionable.


Dimopoulos M, Terpos E, Comenzo RL, Tosi P, Beksac M, Sezer O, Siegel D, Lokhorst H, Kumar S, Rajkumar SV, Niesvizky R, Moulopoulos LA, Durie BG;IMWG.

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