Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) and Smoldering (Asymptomatic) Multiple Myeloma: IMWG Consensus Perspectives Risk Factors for Progression and Guidelines for Monitoring and Management

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was identified in 3.2% of 21,463 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 50 years of age or older. The risk of progression to multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis or a lymphoproliferative disorder is approximately 1% per year. Low- risk MGUS is characterized by having an M protein < 15 g/L, IgG type and a normal free light chain (FLC) ratio. Patients should be followed with serum protein electrophoresis at six months and, if stable, can be followed every two to three years or when symptoms suggestive of a plasma cell malignancy arise. Patients with intermediate and high-risk MGUS should be followed in six months and then annually for life. The risk of smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM) progressing to multiple myeloma or a related disorder is 10% per year for the first 5 years, 3% per year for the next 5 years and 1%-2% per year for the next 10 years. Testing should be done 2-3 months after the initial recognition of SMM. If the results are stable, the patient should be followed every four to six months for one year and, if stable, every six to twelve months.


A. Kyle, MD, B.G.M. Durie, MD, S.V. Rajkumar, MD, O. Landgren, MD, J. Blade, MD, G. Merlini, MD, N. Kroger, MD, H. Einsele, MD, H. Vesole, MD, M. Dimopoulos, MD, J. San-Miguel, MD, H. Avet- Loiseau, MD, R. Hajek, MD, WM Chen, MD, K.C. Anderson, MD, Ludwig, MD, P. Sonneveld, MD, S. Pavlovsky, MD, A. Palumbo, MD, P. G. Richardson, MD, B. Barlogie, MD, P. Greipp, MD, R.Vescio, MD, I. Turesson, MD, J. Westin, MD, M. Boccadoro, MD on behalf of the International Myeloma Working Group.

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