Rafat Abonour, MD
Indiana University Simon Cancer Center
Health-Related Quality of Life of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Receiving Any or Lenalidomide Maintenance after Autologous Stem Cell Transplant in the Connect® MM Disease Registry
Phase 3 trials demonstrated maintenance therapy after autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) extended time to progression, progression-free survival, and in some cases overall survival for patients (pts) with multiple myeloma (MM) (Sonneveld, 2012; McCarthy, 2012; Attal, 2012; Palumbo, 2014; Attal, 2016). Maintenance treatment until progression has the potential to adversely impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Few HRQoL analyses have been published in MM, especially with regard to maintenance therapy after ASCT. Connect® MM is the first and largest multicenter, US-based, prospective observational cohort study designed to characterize treatment patterns and outcomes for pts with newly diagnosed MM (NDMM). This analysis evaluated HRQoL of pts who received Any maintenance therapy, lenalidomide (LEN) only, or No maintenance post-ASCT.
Between September 2009 and December 2011, Connect® MM enrolled 1493 pts in Cohort 1 from community (82%) and academic (17%) centers. Of the 540 pts who received ASCT, 238 met the analysis criteria for Any maintenance, 167 for LEN-only, and 138 for No maintenance. Median age (range) was 60 years (24-78); 61% were male, and 85% were white. The majority were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0/1 (64%) and International Staging System stage I/II (56%). A higher proportion of pts in the Any and LEN-only maintenance groups received triplet therapy as induction vs the No maintenance group (64%, 66%, and 51%, respectively). Median duration (range) of maintenance in the Any and LEN-only maintenance groups was 23.0 months (0.8-50.4) and 24.4 months (0.6-50.4), respectively. During the analytic period, the EQ-5D questionnaire completion rate across the 3 comparison groups was similar and decreased at a similar rate over time. The median number (range) of EQ-5D forms completed per patient was 4.5 (1.0-16.0), 5.0 (1.0-15) and 5.0 (1.0-16.0) for Any, LEN-only, and No maintenance groups, respectively. The mean baseline HRQoL scores for each measure were similar across the 3 groups, with ranges of EQ-5D (0.75-0.76), FACT-MM Total (114.8-119.7), and BPI (3.87-4.06). There were no significant differences in estimated mean post-ASCT scores when comparing Any or LEN-only with the No maintenance group for the EQ-5D Overall Index, the FACT-MM Total Score, or the BPI (Table and Figure).
NDMM pts in the Connect® MM registry receiving Any or LEN-only maintenance therapy vs No maintenance after ASCT demonstrated generally similar HRQoL scores for the EQ-5D Index, FACT-MM, and BPI. These results suggest that there is no difference in HRQoL for those who received maintenance compared with those who did not despite the risks associated with continued active therapy.